By adopting a broad comparative and crossdisciplinary approach that transcends national boundaries, the material presented here and in volume II offers novel perspectives on conversion that challenge existing historiographical narratives and draw on up-to-date archaeological and written evidence in order to shed light on central issues pertaining to the conversion of the Isles.
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Log In If you have personal access to this content, log in with your username and password here: Email or username: Password: Remember me. There is broad recognition of the urgent need to conserve plant diversity; however, a small fraction of wild species is distinguished by their potential to support agricultural production. Many of these species are common, even weedy, and are easily overshadowed by rare or endangered plants.
Nevertheless, because of their genetic proximity to agriculturally important crops or direct use, they deserve to be recognized, celebrated, conserved, and made available to support food and agricultural security. This comprehensive two-volume reference will be valuable for students and scientists interested in economic botany, and for practitioners at all levels tasked with conserving plant biodiversity.
Skip to main content Skip to table of contents. Advertisement Hide. Editors view affiliations Stephanie L. Greene Karen A. Williams Colin K. Khoury Michael B. Kantar Laura F. Front Matter Pages i-xxvi. Front Matter Pages Wild Relatives of Maize. Carlos I. Gardner, Denise E.
North American Crop Wild Relatives, Volume 2
Pages David M. Brenner, Harold E. Bockelman, Karen A. Wildrice Zizania L. Wild Beans Phaseolus L. Wild Lactuca Species in North America. Lebeda, E. Kitner, M. Catling had not seen his film. It therefore does not seem to be a very practicable proposition in England as yet. HOCH, W. Excerpts from the Specifications or abridgements by permission of the Controller of H. M Stationery Office.
flints truth sam flint frontier editor book 2 Manual
Coloured light is used in printing which will reverse or neutralize the effect of difference in the range of film densities in the negative gamma control. For negatives having a high contrast gradient, printing light is used of such wavelength as will produce a positive having a comparatively low contrast gradient, and vice versa. Thus, for a two-colour process employing red and green taking filters, ultra-violet and blue filters may be used for printing the positives.
The process is especially applicable to multicolour printing on a single film in which the contrast gradients cannot be equalized by development. Describes the exposure of two films through the celluloid and the superposition of the two films by cementing them back to back before development. Technicolor used double-width film at this period, and after printing it was folded with the images outwards. It is stated that the developer is to be pyro, subsequently bleaching with potassium ferrocyanide, fixing with hypo, etching away the soft gelatine, and staining the relief images so obtained.
The imbibition film is mounted for development after exposure on a thin metal band, or backing. Steel plated with copper is suggested. The metal strip ensures perfect registration when printing by imbibition upon a blank film. Processing machinery for dissolving away the unhardened gelatine with hot water which is flowed on to the film at opposite edges from several nozzles. Weaver, E.
The gradations in the high-lights of imbibition relief images are made more gradual than those in the half-tone parts by exposure of the film to uniformly distributed light, either previously or simultaneously with the contact printing of the image proper. The film may be rendered absorptive to light of a particular colour, and the uniformly exposing light may be of that colour.
The exposure to uniform light may be approximately the threshold exposure, and both exposures are made from the same side of the film, either from the emulsion side or the celluloid side. Either one or all of the images of a multicolour positive may have been thus exposed to uniformly distributed light. The densities in the shadows of imbibition reliefs are made at least as great as in the half-tone portions. The film is dyed with a dye absorptive to light of short wavelength, and printing is done with a light of short wavelength mixed with a light of long wavelength.
A sharp-cutting dye such as naphthol yellow is used, and it is used in as concentrated a form as possible. Quinoline yellow is mentioned as a restrainer permitting the use of maximum concentration of naphthol yellow. Printing apparatus for imbibition matrices. The machine enables one negative bearing two-colour records in alternating sequence to print two separate positive films; two printing lights are employed, one for each gate.
The type of negative used in this printer is that obtained with a beam-splitter camera of the type described in E. The arrangement of the images is the same as in E. Dyes for imbibition printing are highly purified in such a way as to remove any solid matter or impurities, so that the dye will be absorbed upon the printing matrix in accordance with the density of the printing image, without the formation of self-agglomerating components, and will also be freely imbibed into the receptive gelatine surface without diffusion and without the formation of layers or matter which tends to adhere to the surface or becomes detached from the printing matrix.
To the dye solution may also be added a viscosity agent to prevent lateral diffusion, and this may comprise a second dye having relatively low penetration or dispersion, and high definition with respect to the film to be printed. Two acidified dye compositions for red and green respectively are specified. Cornwell-Clyne, Adrian : Colour Cinematography. In the Hernandez-Mejia patents finally became available, and Technicolor initiated immediate steps toward perfecting a three-color dye-transfer, imbibition print system.
This beam-splitter reflected part of the light to an aperture at the left of the lens and allowed the remainder of the light to pass through to a normally located aperture.
Three specially hypersensitized films passed through these two apertures. In the rear aperture, a single Super-X Panchromatic film was exposed behind a green filter. This filter transmitted both red and blue light, but excluded green. Behind the magenta filter were two strips of film, one behind the other. The front film in the bipack, being an orthochromatic emulsion, recorded only the blue components of the light reaching it. The film carried a red-orange dye which absorbed the blue rays, leaving only the red to affect the rear film.
The panchromatic film in the rear of the bipack thus recorded only the remaining red light. The three negatives record the primary color aspects red, green and blue of the scene, but they resemble ordinary black and white negatives.
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For example, if a red barn were photographed in a green field with a blue sky overhead, the red record negative would have only the image of the barn, the green record negative would have only the image of the field, and the blue record negative would correspondingly have only the image of the sky. Each of these color separation negatives would then produce a special positive relief image matrix. These positives differ from ordinary positives in that the picture gradations are represented by varying thicknesses of hardened gelatin. This strip, with the superimposed images in precise register, becomes the final completed print used in projection.
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Extreme control over the entire process was maintained by the Technicolor Company to insure optimum results. All features were shot on fewer than forty cameras owned and maintained by the company, and all release printing was confined to one of two plants—located in Hollywood and London. The films used in Process Number Four were made exclusively by the Eastman Kodak Company, and they possessed exceptionally low shrinkage rates.
The subsequent registration of the three images was exact to within one-thousandth of an inch, with color fringing all but eliminated on even the largest screens. By May of , the first three-component camera had been completed, and, under the direction of Troland, one unit of the Technicolor plant had been equipped to handle Process Number Four. The difference between the new process and Technicolor Process Number Three was truly extraordinary. There are now rich, deep blues and it is no longer necessary to avoid or to regret the existence of blue skies, blue water, and blue costumes.
The old process presented blurred outlines which were even harder on the eyes than its imperfect colors. Color producers today may again mishandle their medium. But at least they will have good colors, well focused, to abuse. Unfortunately, most producers were unwilling to try the improved system. After failing to interest the feature filmmakers, Kalmus turned his attention to those in the cartoon field.
These initial contacts also proved unsuccessful. Although the Silly Symphony cartoon utilized the new process, a regular animation camera was used. The starting point was staggered one frame for each pass, thus the resulting release print would contain the complete color record. Released in , Flowers and Trees was extremely successful. Within a short period of time the Silly Symphonies series in Technicolor began to make more money than Mickey Mouse films in regular black-and white. As a result, Disney contracted to produce both utilizing the new process in the spring of , 73 and in , The Band Concert became the first Mickey cartoon in full Technicolor.
Kalmus realized this and rewarded Disney by granting him exclusive cartoon rights to both Technicolor processes. This agreement later became a source of embarrassment. Once the success of color cartoons had been proved, the other producers again came around to Dr.